TCP/IP Model

TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. TCP/IP Model helps you to determine how a specific computer should be connected to the internet and how data should be transmitted between them. It helps you to create a virtual network when multiple computer networks are connected together. The purpose of TCP/IP model is to allow communication over large distances. It is specifically designed as a model to offer highly reliable and end-to-end byte stream over an unreliable internet work.

Characteristics of TCP/IP

The essential characteristics of TCP/IP protocol:

  • Support for a flexible architecture.
  • Adding more system to a network is easy.
  • In TCP/IP, the network remains intact until the source, and destination machines were functioning properly.
  • TCP is a connection-oriented protocol.
  • TCP offers reliability and ensures that data which arrives out of sequence should put back into order.
  • TCP allows you to implement flow control, so sender never overpowers a receiver with data.

Four Layers of TCP/IP

Application Layer

This layer performs the functions of top three layers of the OSI model: Application, Presentation and Session Layer. It is responsible for node-to-node communication and controls user-interface specifications. Application layer interacts with an application program, which is the highest level of OSI model. The application layer is the OSI layer, which is closest to the end-user. It means the OSI application layer allows users to interact with other software application.

Example of the application layer is an application such as file transfer, email, remote login, etc.

The function of the Application Layers are:

  • Application-layer helps you to identify communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication.
  • It allows users to log on to a remote host
  • This layer provides various e-mail services
  • This application offers distributed database sources and access for global information about various objects and services.

Following are the main protocols used in the application layer:

  • HTTP: HTTP – Hypertext transfer protocol. This protocol allows us to access the data over the world wide web. It transfers the data in the form of plain text, audio, video. It is known as a Hypertext transfer protocol as it has the efficiency to use in a hypertext environment where there are rapid jumps from one document to another.
  • SNMP: SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol. It is a framework used for managing the devices on the internet by using the TCP/IP protocol suite.
  • SMTP: SMTP – Simple mail transfer protocol. The TCP/IP protocol that supports the e-mail is known as a Simple mail transfer protocol. This protocol is used to send the data to another e-mail address.
  • DNS: DNS – Domain Name System. An IP address is used to identify the connection of a host to the internet uniquely. But, people prefer to use the names instead of addresses. Therefore, the system that maps the name to the address is known as Domain Name System.
  • TELNET: It is an abbreviation for Terminal Network. It establishes the connection between the local computer and remote computer in such a way that the local terminal appears to be a terminal at the remote system.
  • FTP: FTP – File Transfer Protocol. FTP is a standard internet protocol used for transmitting the files from one computer to another computer.

Transport Layer

Transport layer builds on the network layer in order to provide data transport from a process on a source system machine to a process on a destination system. It is hosted using single or multiple networks, and also maintains the quality of service functions.

The functions of Transport Layers:

  • It divides the message received from the session layer into segments and numbers them to make a sequence.
  • Transport layer makes sure that the message is delivered to the correct process on the destination machine.
  • It also makes sure that the entire message arrives without any error else it should be re transmitted.

The two protocols used in the transport layer are User Datagram protocol and Transmission control protocol.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

  • It provides connectionless service and end-to-end delivery of transmission.
  • It is an unreliable protocol as it discovers the errors but not specify the error.
  • User Datagram Protocol discovers the error, and ICMP protocol reports the error to the sender that user datagram has been damaged.
  • UDP consists of the following fields:
    Source port address: The source port address is the address of the application program that has created the message.
    Destination port address: The destination port address is the address of the application program that receives the message.
    Total length: It defines the total number of bytes of the user datagram in bytes.
    Checksum: The checksum is a 16-bit field used in error detection.
  • UDP does not specify which packet is lost. UDP contains only checksum; it does not contain any ID of a data segment.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

  • It provides a full transport layer services to applications.
  • It creates a virtual circuit between the sender and receiver, and it is active for the duration of the transmission.
  • TCP is a reliable protocol as it detects the error and retransmits the damaged frames. Therefore, it ensures all the segments must be received and acknowledged before the transmission is considered to be completed and a virtual circuit is discarded.
  • At the sending end, TCP divides the whole message into smaller units known as segment, and each segment contains a sequence number which is required for reordering the frames to form an original message.
  • At the receiving end, TCP collects all the segments and reorders them based on sequence numbers.

Internet Layer

An internet layer is a second layer of the TCP/IP model. It is also known as a network layer. The main work of this layer is to send the packets from any network, and any computer still they reach the destination irrespective of the route they take. The Internet layer offers the functional and procedural method for transferring variable length data sequences from one node to another with the help of various networks.

Following are the main protocols used in the application layer:

  • IP Addressing: This protocol implements logical host addresses known as IP addresses. The IP addresses are used by the internet and higher layers to identify the device and to provide internetwork routing.
  • Host-to-host communication: It determines the path through which the data is to be transmitted.
  • Data Encapsulation and Formatting: An IP protocol accepts the data from the transport layer protocol. An IP protocol ensures that the data is sent and received securely, it encapsulates the data into message known as IP datagram.
  • Fragmentation and Reassembly: The limit imposed on the size of the IP datagram by data link layer protocol is known as Maximum Transmission unit (MTU). If the size of IP datagram is greater than the MTU unit, then the IP protocol splits the datagram into smaller units so that they can travel over the local network. Fragmentation can be done by the sender or intermediate router. At the receiver side, all the fragments are reassembled to form an original message.
  • Routing: When IP datagram is sent over the same local network such as LAN, MAN, WAN, it is known as direct delivery. When source and destination are on the distant network, then the IP datagram is sent indirectly. This can be accomplished by routing the IP datagram through various devices such as routers.

ARP Protocol

  • ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol.
  • ARP is a network layer protocol which is used to find the physical address from the IP address.
  • The two terms are mainly associated with the ARP Protocol:
    • ARP request: When a sender wants to know the physical address of the device, it broadcasts the ARP request to the network.
    • ARP reply: Every device attached to the network will accept the ARP request and process the request, but only recipient recognize the IP address and sends back its physical address in the form of ARP reply. The recipient adds the physical address both to its cache memory and to the datagram header

ICMP Protocol

  • ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol.
  • It is a mechanism used by the hosts or routers to send notifications regarding datagram problems back to the sender.
  • A datagram travels from router-to-router until it reaches its destination. If a router is unable to route the data because of some unusual conditions such as disabled links, a device is on fire or network congestion, then the ICMP protocol is used to inform the sender that the datagram is undeliverable.
  • An ICMP protocol mainly uses two terms:
    • ICMP Test: ICMP Test is used to test whether the destination is reachable or not.
    • ICMP Reply: ICMP Reply is used to check whether the destination device is responding or not.
  • The core responsibility of the ICMP protocol is to report the problems, not correct them. The responsibility of the correction lies with the sender.
  • ICMP can send the messages only to the source, but not to the intermediate routers because the IP datagram carries the addresses of the source and destination but not of the router that it is passed to.

Network Access Layer

A network layer is the lowest layer of the TCP/IP model. A network layer is the combination of the Physical layer and Data Link layer defined in the OSI reference model. It defines how the data should be sent physically through the network. This layer is mainly responsible for the transmission of the data between two devices on the same network. The functions carried out by this layer are encapsulating the IP datagram into frames transmitted by the network and mapping of IP addresses into physical addresses. The protocols used by this layer are ethernet, token ring, FDDI, X.25, frame relay.

Published by Abdul Samad

Having 17+ years of extensive experience in IT industry, enabled to enhance the team performance and maximize customer satisfaction by strategically managing calls and implementing process improvements. Demonstrated ability to solve problems, meets challenging goals, and expedites delivery. Skilled MSSQL administrator guide team during the crisis situation. Apply Creative thoughts process in re-designing the workflow system to eliminate duplication of effort and increase productivity.

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